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Clinical Practice Guideline for the Use of Ankle Foot Orthoses and Functional Electrical Stimulation Post Stroke


The scope of the CPG is intended to provide evidence on the effects of AFO or FES on: 

  • Rehabilitation of individuals with acute and chronic stroke
  • Goals based on a compensation and recovery approach
  • Outcomes across the ICF levels of functioning

The target population of the CPG includes adults ( ≥18 years of age) of both genders and all races and ethnicities.


The Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy published the CPG in April 2021.


     Podcast: ANPT Stroke SIG interview with Dr. Therese Johnston and Dr. Lisa Brown

CPG Quick Reference for Clinicians

Gait Analysis Quick Reference for Clinicians

Clinical Effects of an AFO/FES
Defining and applying the various effects of an AFO/FES to your patient 

Clinical Pearls Resource

Action Statement Evidence Summaries
Eight action statement evidence summary documents were designed for clinicians to briefly synthesize and summarize the evidence from the clinical practice guideline related to each action statement. They guide dosing for using AFO and FES, along with clinical pearls, to understand the patient-centered impact on their use.

NEW! Patient Education 

  • The new AFO and FES fact sheet will help people working with physical therapists understand the differences between AFO and FES. The fact sheet describes the features and benefits of AFO and FES and how AFO or FES may help a person after a stroke.

AFO Types and AFO/FES Features: 

AFO Resources

  • AFO Type: Benefits, considerations, and examples
  • AFO Feature: Features that impact effects of an AFO

FES Resources

  • FES: benefits, considerations, and examples


CPG Work Group

Content Leader: Therese Johnston
Admin. Leader: Lisa Brown
Contact Person
Employer/Clinical background and expertise
Therese E. Johnston, PT, PhD, MBA

Department of Physical Therapy
Arcadia University
Glenside, PA
Lisa Brown PT,DPT*
Clinical Assistant Professor
Boston University
Sargent College of Health and Rehabilitation Science
Boston, MA
Sarah Keller PT, DPT*
Physical Therapy Program
Midwestern University
Downers Grove, IL

Caitlin Denzer-Weiler PT, DPT*



* All the Physical therapists above are Board Certified Neurologic Clinical Specialists.

Senior Physical Therapist, Neurologic Clinical Specialist
Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation
Chester, NJ


CPG Knowledge Translation Task Force

Elizabeth "Beth" Cornforth, PT, DPT* (Co-chair) 

Bobbette Miller, DPT* (Co-chair)

Lisa Brown, PT, DPT*

Andrea Ecsedy, PT, DPT*

Megan Greenwood, PT, DPT, MSPT*+

Therese E. Johnston, PT, Ph.D., MBA       

Ryan Koter, PT, DPT          

Suzanne O'Neal, PT, DPT, DHSc* 

Katherine "Katie" Sweet, PT, DPT*

* All the Physical Therapists above are Board Certified Neurological Clinical Specialists.

+ The physical therapist above is also a Board Certified Pediatric Clinical Specialist. 

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